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61: Utility Deregulation
... in the regulation of what was once viewed as natural monopolies. Public utilities used to receive a franchise to be the sole local supplier. In return, they had to provide virtually universal service at regulated rates and were guaranteed a normal operating profit. A generation of economic analysis has demonstrated that this kind of regulation tolerates inefficiencies, retards innovation, and often promotes investment motivated mainly by the desire to increase the ... level. Most electric utilities are regulated by state commissions. On the federal level, the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) has certain regulatory authority over utility holding companies. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulates wholesale rates of all companies operating in interstate commerce. FERC approves issuance of securities for some companies, prescribes accounting systems, requires extensive and detailed reporting, as well as reviews, and passes on applications for development of hydroelectric ... little incentive to keep costs down. Commissions have the difficult job of verifying that prices charged to different classes of customers are just, reasonable and based on an equitable distribution of cost. The maximum allowable rates to be charged are based on two key objectives. The first is to protect consumers against exorbitant charges that might otherwise result from the monopoly aspect of public utility franchises. The second is to ...
62: Business Plan
... Left to finance: $0 Start-up Funding Plan Investment Investor 1 $20,000 Investor 2 $20,000 Other $10,000 Total investment $50,000 Short-term borrowing Unpaid expenses $5,000 Short-term loans $0 Interest-free short-term loans $0 Subtotal Short-term Borrowing $5,000 Long-term Borrowing $0 Total Borrowing $5,000 Loss at start-up ($23,000) Total Equity $27,000 Total Debt and Equity $32,000 ... linked together by interconnecting directors and sharing the name and corporate wisdom. Some evolved from accounting companies (e.g. Arthur Anderson, Touche Ross) and some from management consulting (McKinsey, Bain). These companies charge very high rates for consulting, and maintain relatively high overhead structures and fulfillment structures based on partners selling and junior associates fulfilling. At the intermediate level are some function specific or market specific consultants, such as the market ... in this section summarizes key financial assumptions, including 45-day average collection days, sales entirely on invoice basis, expenses mainly on net 30 basis, 35 days on average for payment of invoices, and present-day interest rates. General Assumptions 1995 1996 1997 ____________ _____________________________________________________________ Collection days 43 45 45 Payment Days 35 35 35 1995 1996 1997 ____________ _____________________________________________________________ Short Term Interest Rate 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% Long Term Interest Rate 10. ...
63: Interest Groups
Interest Groups Interest Group is defined as "an organized body of individuals who try to influence public policy." This system is designed so that interest groups would be an instrument of public influence on politics to create changes, but would not threaten the government much. Whether this is still the case or not is an important question that we ...
64: Treatment And The Sex Offender
... reduction in recidivism for one year. But he says the effects of such treatment did not reduce recidivism any more than no treatment after two years. And it had no influence on reducing the recidivism rates of young offenders (Martinson, p.296). Prisoners with less sentences were found to have a higher parole success rate than those with longer sentences, but did not deal with the issue of offender degree of ... are attracted to children throughout their lives and have been unable to attain any degree of psycho-sexual maturity. The subtypes of this type of child molester is as follows: Seductive, having an exclusive sexual interest in children and trying to court and seduce them. He is introverted, having a fixated interest in children but does not have the social skills to seduce them. He typically molests strangers or very young children or marries women with children the age of his preference. He may be sadistic, ...
65: Depression
... where Prozac and PMS jokes are part of the cultural landscape, we have a new term for our "craziness", our melancholy-depression, or major depressive disorder. And along with our relatively newfound label, the heightened interest in depression has opened up a host of theories, myths, and treatments that seek to explain the oldest mental illness in written history. Affecting over 17 million Americans each year (that's one in seven ... As for environmental causes, researchers link depression to a number of risk factors. It is often triggered by stressful events, such as a death, or by the memory of a childhood trauma, such as molestation. Rates also increase with poverty and with physical illness. But the question looms, "Why are there twice as many depressed women as men?" One answer is that, "Women have the words for it...[and] they are ... emotional and seek help for their mental illness, thereby deceptively driving up the numbers of reported depression cases among women. Thus, we see fewer men admitting depression but instead acting it out through their higher rates of alcoholism and suicide. However, some researchers think there may be more at play here. Higher rates of depression among women are seen across cultures, countries, and classes. Depression rates are evenly distributed across ...
66: Emile Durkheim & Anomie Or Strain Theory
... Changing conditions in society as well as adjustment of life leads to dissatisfaction, conflict, and deviance. Durkheim observed that social periods of disruption, such as economic depression lead to increased levels of anomie and higher rates of crime, suicide, and deviance. Durkheim believed that sudden change caused a state of anomie. The system breaks down, either during a great prosperity or a great depression, anomie is the same result (Durkheim). Robert ... in his work. The authors add the nation’s level of development as a variable to see its impact on suicide. The operational definition of the concept that was used, was to look at suicide rates from Protestant and Catholic nations. The hypothesis of Durkheim was that because Catholics have a more socially integrated or controlling religion that they would have less egoistic suicide than Protestants. The theory and hypothesis was measured by use of cross national longitudinal data on suicide rates from seven Catholic, and five Protestant nations. Pope et al (1981) article compared the national, female, and male suicide rates with and without control for the nations level of development, and for four different ...
67: The United States Postal Servi
... Postal Service is a monopoly, it is its own market. This paper will discuss the budget dilemmas that the postal service has faced for the past twenty years and if it is in the best interest of the economy for the United States Postal Service to continue as a monopoly. The first time there was talk of privatizing the Postal Service was in 1979 when the Postal Service was losing vast ... were submitted earlier the postal service would receive more money because they could invest that money sooner. Another way the Postal Service could increased profits was by competitively selecting banks that would give them higher interest rates and such. Probably the most relevant and final way to improve the budget of the Postal Service is to improve the bookkeeping policies and banking techniques. Not only did the Post Service propose to ...
68: The Chamber
... which hit number one on the New York Times bestseller list, and THE CLIENT, which debuted at number one, confirmed Grisham's reputation as the master of the legal thriller. Grisham's success even renewed interest in A TIME TO KILL, which was republished in hardcover by Doubleday and then in paperback by Dell. This time around, it was a bestseller. Since first publishing A TIME TO KILL in 1988, Grisham ... we have to stumble through now. All of John Grisham's books deal with the topic of the United States Court system and the many aspects of it. There have been many comparisons of crime rates of death penalty states to non- death penalty states. These clearly show that the death penalty has no effect on the deteration of crime. The homicide Samich 3 rates in Michigan, Ohio and Illinois rise and fall along with Wisconsin. Michigan, Ohio and Illinois all have the death penalty. Wisconsin does not. In 1994, the average murder rate in a death penalty state ...
69: Long Swings in the Exchange Rate and the Excess Returns Puzzle: The Role of Imperfect Knowledge
... see the mathematical justification for the unexplained excess returns to be a function of the distance from the bench-mark (PPP). The uncertainty of a switch occurring in a regime (the Peso Problem) is an interest-ing form within which to embed the imperfect information. It is a format that seems ready to ex-pand into many other areas of economic modeling in which expectations are at the core of the ... model, is that the flow of goods and services is the foundation for the equilibrating dynamic. Behind the flow of goods and services is the gap between the gap between, domestic and foreign short-term rates, and the steady state long-run interest rate gap that sets goods flows to zero. The assumption is that the prices of the domestic and foreign goods in their respective for- eign currencies are "incorrect" based on the fundamentals of the ...
70: Crime
... economic crimes, political crimes, crimes of passion, organized crime, and white collar crime. Crimes are often divided between acts that most people would consider evil and acts that lawmakers decide should be regulated in the interest of the community. The first group includes such major crimes as arson, assault, breach of the peace, burglary, kidnapping, larceny, murder, rape, and robbery. The second group includes crimes of a “rapidly growing urban society ... groups are often called the “crime syndicate or the underworld.” Organized crime specializes in providing illegal goods and services. Its activities include gambling, prostitution, the illegal sale of drugs, and loaning money at extremely high rates of interest. Many of these activities are often called “victimless crimes” because both the buyer and the seller take part in them willingly. Most activities of the crime syndicate are not reported to the police. People ...

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