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41: Taxes and Its Objectives
... the lower tax rate (a drop from an average effective rate of 33 percent to about 17 percent) and an end to the practice of double or triple taxation of so-called passive income (dividends, interest, and capital gains). Dividends and interest actually are payments made by companies to stockholders and depositors out of company income that already has been taxed. Furthermore, individuals buy company stock and make time deposits in savings accounts with after-tax income. Thus, all of the cash transactions associated with, say, a dividend are based on income that already has been taxed. To collect additional tax on dividends, interest, and capital gains constitutes double taxation, thus violating the principle of taxing all income only once and at its source. This double taxation would be ended under the Armey-Shelby flat tax. Some of ...
42: Appalacian Regional Commission & Poverty In Appalachia
... local development districts. The ARC has provided special funds for the Region’s poorest counties since 1983. Currently 108 counties qualify for distressed county status on the basis of low per capita income and high rates of poverty and unemployment. The distressed county program focuses on providing badly needed public facilities, especially systems to furnish clean drinking water and sanitary waste disposal, and human resource projects such as literacy training. Under ... 1960\\'s standard of living, and the extent of poverty is therefore underestimated. The thresholds are also criticized for understating a minimally adequate livelihood, by ignoring the rising standard of living or by setting the rates too low at the outset, which means that the real amount of money needed may be 50% more than the current poverty threshold based on surveys of the public.(FAMILIES FIRST, pp.3-4) Despite ... family above the poverty level or to provide desperately needed benefits, especially health care.(Families First,p.49) Employment is a commonly used indicator of persistent distress in rural communities. In the 1980\\'s unemployment rates rose significantly throughout Central Appalachia due to structural changes in the economy, such as the coal industry. Unemployment rates did decline in Appalachian Kentucky from 16.4 percent in 1983 to 7.7 percent ...
43: Australia And The Depression
... were the official monetary authorities, they had little direct influence on monetary policy. Monetary policy was controlled by private banks, and so monetary policy reflected their market response to economic circumstances. Banks determined short-term interest rates through their competition for deposits and were key planners in the foreign exchange market during the early years of depression. The fact that Sir Robert Gibson was Chair of the Commonwealth Bank only added to ... number of bankers conferences, the Mobilisation Agreement was signed. This provided a means for financing current public debt obligations in London. The banks were to provide sufficient funds (£3 million per month) to cover the interest repayments but not the principal of the debt. The banks now had a substantial level of control over the government which reduced the government's means to deal with the problems of the Great ...
44: Looking Ahead: The Future Of Post Keynesian Economics
... of the Unemployment of Labour, or the disappointment of reasonable business expectations, and of the impairment of efficiency and production. Yet the cure lies outside the operations of individuals; it may even be to the interest of individuals to aggravate the disease. I believe that the cure for these things is partly to be sought in the deliberate control of the currency and of credit by a central institution... These measures ... Keynesians, the message is the same and the task at hand is similar to the one Keynes stated in chapter 1 of the General Theory: I have called this book the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, placing the emphasis upon the prefix general. The object of such a title is to contrast the character of my arguments and conclusions with those of the classical theory of the subject, upon ... the gospel truth of comparative advantage. Similar to Say's law, comparative advantage holds true only under limited cases. These limited cases are not represented in the world we live in today with flexible exchange rates and high levels of world-wide unemployment. Similar to applying and carrying out public policies based on the assumptions of Say's law in the 1930s, we can fine ourselves in the next century ...
45: Adam Smith
... considerable controversy as how far there is contradiction or contrast between Smith's emphasis in the Moral Sentiments on sympathy as a fundamental human motive, and, on the other hand, the key role of self-interest in the The Wealth of Nations. In the former he seems to put more emphasis on the general harmony of human motives and activities under a beneficent Providence, while in the latter, in spite of ... it was not permitted him to work out. We must keep these considerations before us if we would rightly appreciate Adam Smith's attitude towards our problem. Adam Smith has not overlooked the problem of interest; neither has he worked it out. He deals with it as a great thinker may deal with an important subject which he often comes across, but has not time or opportunity to go very deeply ... a distinct theory gives, could scarcely fail to fall into all sorts of wavering and contradictory expressions. Thus we have the peculiar phenomenon that, while Adam Smith has not laid down any distinct theory of interest, the germs of almost all the later and conflicting theories are to be found, with more or less distinctness, in his scattered observations. We find the same phenomenon in Adam Smith as regards many ...
46: A Student's Reading of The Politics of Rich and Poor
... party affiliation. With his thesis in mind, Phillips discusses three major factors that escalate and at the same time submerge the state of the economy in America. These factors include: the sudden shift in tax rates, the diminishing "global wealth" of America, and the inability of the government under Regan to satisfy a "happy medium" for economic growth. All of these factors support Phillips' theme and prove his argument of an ... affluent to carry the burden. The highest tax rate eventually reached ninety- one percent. After about twenty-five years, the economy was finally stable enough to lower this absurd rate. In the mid seventies, the rates were gradually lowered to a mediocre seventy percent. Starting in 1980 the republican machine decided to again lower the rates, thereby lessening the gap between rich and poor. What actually happened was the high income brackets had more of a decrease than anyone. The rates at one point reached a low fifty percent. This ...
47: The Japanese Economy
... successful model of a strong global economy. Real GDP growth ranged from 4%-6% from 1984 until the economic bubble burst in 1993. The Yen was regarded as one of the world’s leading currencies. Interest rates ranged from 4.5% to 6%. Japan operated at full employment. Household consumption increased by 2%. Foreign capital investments rose at unparalleled rates. However, since the early 1990's, Japan's economy has been on a downward spiral. Real GDP growth declined to 0.3% in 1993, fell to 0% in 1997 (Posen, 1998a, Table 1.1), ...
48: China's Economy Evolution
... in China was shaped by the adoption of a heavy-industry-oriented development strategy (HIODS) in the early 1950's. The system had three integrated components: 1) a distorted macro policy environment with artificially low interest rates, overvalued exchange rates, low nominal wage rates, and low prices for living necessities and raw materials. 2) Allocation for credit, foreign exchange, and other materials. 3) A traditional micro management institution of state enterprises and collective agriculture ( ...
49: Describe The Roles of Government In The Present Business Environment
... state and local. The federal government has power over such areas as; company law, income tax, trade etc. State government has power over pollution, price controls, state courts etc. and local government has power over rates, building approvals and zoning. Through zoning the local government can decide where businesses are located, or how many similar businesses should be built in a particular area. The power of the government can have direct ... to comply. The federal government has the greatest effect over the macroeconomic business environment through the making of policies. The government has a number of economic objectives. They aim to have consistent economic growth, low rates of inflation, a sound international trading situation and low unemployment. To meet these objectives the government must place policies such as fiscal, monetary, trade and income policies. Fiscal policy is the deliberate action of the ... money is taken from the economy by less taxes and higher expenditure raising employment. Monetary policy can also raise the level of economic activity. It controls the availability of money by influencing the level of interest rates. Lowering interest rates encourages people to spend and borrow while higher interest rates encourages people to save and not borrow. By lowering interest rates the government encourages spending thus increasing the level of ...
50: ... we are motivated by selfish self interests and because of that, we are better off living in a world of moral rules. Without there rules we are at the mercy of other people's self - interest. War becomes the need to gain control of our own environments when others try to exploit us. These self - interests are Hobbe's way of saying that all of our actions are a product of ... love thy neighbor theme, it seems. It follows that if I help you in war then you have benefited me and I should benefit you in return for a mutal defence. Preservation is a self - interest and we all desire that. Overall, I believe that Hobbe's theory cast closer to Lord of the Flies than Augustine's. The way the boys separate into groups (ie: hunters and the peaceful) shows ... would assume this is a form of Consequentialism because the action was best for the boy himself or for the group. In Lord of the Flies, hostilities grew out of each boy's own self- interest for desire, be it safety, food, shelter, or peer attention and companionship in numbers. Based on Hobbes theory, when the hunters stole the knife or eyeglasses from the peaceful boys, the hunters were simply ...

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