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71: John Dalton 2
... good amount of his experiments were later proven to not be true. But his most famous theory "Dalton law" the modern atomic theory was proved true. John Dalton also published a lot of papers on atoms. His most famous article was on "absorption of gases by water and other liquids," this article contained his atomic theory. Dalton was the first person to develop a scientific atom theory, the ancient Greeks had ... for the discovery of 90 natural elements. Dalton also explained the variations of water vapor in the atmosphere, the base of meteorology. Dalton s atomic theory says that each element contained its own number of atoms. Each element had its own size and weight. Dalton s idea said that all things are made of small bits of matter this bits of matter where too small to be seen even with a ... erected in his memory out side of his home in Manchester, but most other of Dalton s collected relics were lost in World War II. John Dalton was a very important figure in study of atoms and meteorology. "My Brother John". (online) available http://encarta.msn.com/encarta/MediaMax.asp?z=2&br=0&pg=3&ti=02DFD000&med=1&idx=40584 "Dalton, John". Encyclopedia Britannica, volume 7 :pg:11. 1977
72: The Element Carbon and Its Importance
... are found as deposits of petroleum, asphalt, and bitumen. Deposits of natural gas contain compounds that are composed of carbon and hydrogen. The forms of pure carbon vary widely depending upon which crystal structure the atoms take. In diamond, the carbon atoms are arranged in a close framework that makes diamond one of the hardest substances known. Diamonds are used to cut other hard materials. However, graphite is so soft that it is widely used to lubricate moving machine parts. Its carbon atoms are arranged in flat sheets or layers that can easily slide back and forth over each other. Carbon has many other uses, ranging from ornamental applications of the diamond in jewelry to the black- ...
73: Irene Joliot-curie
... published concerning the speed of the alpha rays of polonium. She would bombard a screen of matter with alpha rays, then study the target through a microscope, concentrating on the alpha rays colliding with the atoms of the screen, counting the flashes and noting where they hit. She went on to publish another paper on the rays' distribution - which Marie personally sent to Albert Einstein - and their magnetic deviation, all of ... developments in atomic physics. In the preceding few years. Chadwick read their paper and came up with and explanation that had identified the neutron, completing the elucidation of the triumvirate of particles which compose all atoms, and which replaced the Daltonian theory of solid spherical atoms. For this work he alone, not him along with the Joliot-Curies were awarded the Nobel Prize. The task of modern chemists and atomic physicists was to restore a sense of order to the ...
74: Mitochondrion
... to burn energy through a slow method of combustion, which will consume as much air to burn as fire will, just to break down nutrients into simpler substances. These simpler molecules then bond with the atoms that will need the energy to function. Then, enzymes in the mitochondrion break up the atoms and then recapture them again. This time, the energy atoms will be bonded in a different molecule to form ATP, or adenosine triphosphate. ATP has an adenosine core and three phosphates attached to it, hence its name. These phosphates will store the new energy. ...
75: The Atomic Bomb anad Nuclear Bombs
... to produce a critical mass. After this occurs, there are enough neutrons bouncing around in the material to create a chain reaction of fissions. In the fission reactions, collisions between neutrons and uranium or plutonium atoms cause the atoms to split into pairs of nuclear fragments, releasing energy and more neutrons. Once the reactions begin, the neutrons released by each reaction hit other atoms and create more fission reactions until all the fissile material is exhausted or scattered. This process of fission releases enormous energy in the form of extreme heat and a massive shock wave; this is ...
76: Fermentation
... role in the processing of the ethanol that is toxic to the body. An enzyme within the liver called dehydrogenase enzyme assists in the transformation of ethanol into another toxic liquid acetaldehyde plus two hydrogen atoms. The reaction is shown below. The acetaldehyde, like the ethanol, needs to be destroyed in order for the body to digest it. Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme is the enzyme that, along with water, is responsible for converting the acetaldehyde molecules into acetate ions. The reaction is shown below. The resulting hydrogen atoms are not put to waste. They are used to convert NAD to NADH. This is a vital processing of hydrogen atoms that occurs in many processes within the body. The reaction is shown below. NAD + H NADH The process shown above can only work so fast. The disposal rate of ethanol in a 150-pound ...
77: Nuclear Energy
... From Theory to Practice The nuclear age began in Germany, in the 1930s in the lab of chemist Otto Hahn. Hahn was attempting to produce radium (In great need during the war) by bombarding uranium atoms with neutrons. To his surprise, he ended up with a much lighter element, barium. That was 1938, This started the race for the power of the atom. Just four years later Canada entered nuclear age ... September 5th, 1945 near Ottawa the team started up the first operating nuclear reactor outside the USA. Of course, the output was minuscule, but the significance was immense; the principal of getting energy from splitting atoms in a controlled chain reaction (fission) was established beyond doubt. It was now the job of the scientists and engineers to put it to a practical use. Nuclear Reactors A nuclear reactor is a device ... or a nuclear reactor, heat is required to turn water into steam. The steam is used to spin large turbines which in turn drive generators that produce electricity. A reactor creates heat by splitting uranium atoms. This is called 'Nuclear reaction' or 'Fission'. When the nucleus of an uranium atom is stuck by a neutron travelling at the right speed, it splits into fragments which separate rapidly and generate heat. ...
78: Atomic Bomb 9
... made a decision. This decision essentially changed the history of warfare forever. An atomic bomb is any weapon that gets its destructive power from an atom. This power comes when the matter inside of the atoms is transformed into energy. The process by which this is done is known as fission. The only two atoms suitable for fission are the uranium isotope U-235 and the plutonium isotope Pu-239. Fission occurs when a neutron, a subatomic particle with no electrical charge, strikes the nucleus of one of these isotopes and causes it to split apart. When the nucleus is split, a large amount of energy is produced, and more free neutrons are also released. These neutrons strike other atoms, which causes more energy to be released. If this process is repeated, a self-sustaining chain reaction will occur, and it is this chain reaction that causes the atomic bomb to have its destructive ...
79: The Effects of Alcohol on People
... mortality rates the non drinkers. Drinkers suffer the increased risk of accidental injury to themselves and others than non drinkers.( Smart , page 1 ) Alcohol refers to a class of chemical compounds. Alcohol is chemically bonded atoms of carbon , hydrogen , and oxygen atoms. Alcohol molecules are oxygen atoms in the hydroxyl group then is turned into a bonded of a carbon atom to form a chemical compound. ( Matt , page 1 ) People commonly use the word alcohol to refer to such beverages as ...
80: Big Bang
... universe for the next 300,000 years will then begin to expand and cool to a temperature of 10,000K. These conditions allowed for helium nuclei to absorb free floating electrons and form helium atoms. Meanwhile hydrogen atoms were bonding together and forming lithium. It is here that the density of the universe has expanded to the point where light can be perceived. Until this point photons continued to be trapped within matter ... excess of one billion degrees Kelvin. At five minutes old, Gamow speculated, this universe would have particles that could not combine. But as the expansion began the temperatures would decrease and nuclear fusion would occur. Atoms would form as protons and neutrons would attach themselves to one another. Gamow then Hypothesized that all the elements in the Universe were created at this time. One year later however, it was proven ...

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