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31: Biological Effects Of Radiation
... Effects of Radiation Whether the source of radiation is natural or man made, whether it is a small dose of radiation or a large dose, there will be some biological effects. Radiation causes ionizations of atoms, which will affect molecules, which may affect cells, which may affect tissues, and so on. Although most people tend to think of biological effects in terms of the effect of radiation on living cells, in actuality, ionizing radiation, by definition, interacts only with atoms by a process called ionization (Chandra p. 205). Thus, all biological damage effects begin with the consequence of radiation interactions with the atoms forming the cells. Even though all subsequent biological effects can be traced back to the interaction of radiation with atoms, there are two mechanisms by which radiation ultimately affects cells. These two mechanisms are ...
32: Adamantane
... minute detail. What they found confirmed their previous assertions that adamantane was unlike any carbohydrate known to man. That carbohydrate was found to be a three fused chairs of cyclohexane rings bound only to hydrogen atoms. The crystallized structure of adamantane was studied in depth by X-ray diffraction. An X-ray diffraction pattern is created through the interaction of photons emitted from an excited metal atom with the crystal form of a compound. The photon either misses the crystal atoms or is deflected by the atom. Most photons miss the atoms, but those deflected do so in a regular pattern because of the repetitious nature of crystals. That pattern may be recorded through the use of a strip of photographic film or a two-dimensional ...
33: Nuclear Power
Nuclear Power Producing energy from a nuclear power plant is very complicated. The process of nuclear energy involves the fission of atoms, the release of energy from fission as heat, and the transfer of heat to electricity in power plants. The process of splitting the atom is called nuclear fission. Fission can take place in many different kinds of atoms. This explanation uses Uranium - 235, the atom most commonly used in nuclear reactors. The Uranium atom has many protons, thus making it unstable. Since the nucleus of the atom is so unstable it wants to split itself apart, causing a spontaneous fission. When the nuclei of a Uranium atom splits apart, it splits into two atoms. Commonly the nucleus splits into Barium and Krypton; however, it can split into any two atoms as long as the number of protons equals the original amount of the protons found in the Uranium. ...
34: Magnatism & the Things We Think We Know About It!
... in the case of iron, Fe, there are four. What happens then in the case of a natural magnet the unpaired electrons line up or the magnet in a specific mannor. That is all the atoms with unpaired electrons moving in a direction which causes a certain charge are lined up on one side and all the atoms with the opposite charge move to the other side. The atoms then start to cancel each other out as they approach the center of the magnet. This all happens at the currie point where these atoms are free to move and then when cooled and ...
35: Fusion 2
... fusing nuclei must be produced. In a gas at extremely high temperature, the average nucleus contains sufficient kinetic energy to undergo fusion. Such a medium can be produced by heating an ordinary gas of neutral atoms beyond the temperature at which electrons are knocked out of the atoms. The result is an ionized gas consisting of free negative electrons and positive nuclei. This gas constitutes a plasma. Plasma, in physics, is an electrically conducting medium in which there are roughly equal numbers of positively and negatively charged particles, produced when the atoms in a gas become ionized. It is sometimes referred to as the fourth state of matter, distinct from the solid, liquid, and gaseous states. When energy is continuously applied to a solid, it first ...
36: B E C: The New Phase of Matter
B E C: The New Phase of Matter A new phase of matter has been discovered seventy years after Albert Einstein predicted it's existence. In this new state of matter, atoms do not move around like they would in an ordinary gas condensate. The atoms move in lock step with one another and have identical quantum properties. This will make it easier for physicists to research the mysterious properties of quantum mechanics. It was named "Molecule of the Year" because ... BEC) follows the laws of quantum physics. In early 1995, scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado were the first to uncover the BEC. They magnetically trapped rubidium atoms and then supercooled the atoms to almost absolute zero. The graphic on the cover shows the Bose-Einstien condensation, where the atom's velocities peak at close to zero velocity, and the atoms slowly ...
37: Acid Rain: Cause and Effects and Issues
... power by means of a chemical reaction. A battery can be primary or secondary. All batteries, primary or secondary, work as a result of a chemical reaction. This reaction produces an electric current because the atoms of which chemical elements are made, are held together by electrical forces when they react to form compounds. A battery cell consists of three basic parts; a positively charged electrode, called the cathode, a negatively ... when any of these chemical substances is dissolved in water , its molecules break up and become electrically charged ions. Sulfuric acid is a good example. Sulfuric acid, H2SO4, has molecules of which consist of two atoms of hydrogen, one of sulfur and four oxygen. When dissolved in water, the molecules split into three parts, the two atoms of hydrogen separate and in the process each loses an electron, becoming a positively charged ion (H+). The sulfur atom and the four atoms of oxygen remain together as a sulfate group (SO4), and ...
38: Global Warming 3 --
... and they burn up our protective ozone blanket faster than it can rebuild itself. Our ozone blocks out most of the killer radiation rays from our sun. Ozone is a molecule with just three Oxygen atoms. It is created when UV light reacts with oxygen gas, which has two Oxygen atoms. UV light also destroys ozone, so you need just the right mix of UV light and oxygen to get an ozone layer. For the last 450 million years, our ozone has been our sun screen. Chemicals that we use in daily life produce ozone eating atoms when they reach the stratosphere and are exposed to intense UV rays. Chemicals such as CFC's are too unreactive to be removed and they rise slowly, taking 10-20 years to make the ...
39: The Ozone Layer
... in the stratosphere, approximately 10 km - 50 km above the earth. The density of ozone gas at zero degrees Celsius is 1 ATM. The Ozone is relatively unstable form of molecular oxygen containing three oxygen atoms (O ). Radiation from the sun continuously bombards the Earth’s atmosphere, causing molecules to break apart into component elements that form into new chemical compounds. Ozone is produced when upper-atmosphere oxygen molecules (O ) are broken apart by ultra-violet light. Most of the freed oxygen atoms immediately bond with nearby oxygen molecules to form ozone (O + O =O ). The only method used to make commercially is to pass gaseous oxygen or air through a high voltage alternating-current electric discharge called ... can be responsible for destroying terns or even hundreds of thousands of ozone molecules. In the last few years, various human activities have released ozone - destroying chemicals into the atmosphere. Of Particular importance are halogen atoms -- chlorine and bromide. Chemicals release into the ozone by industrial particles include chlorocarbon compounds (such as CCL and CHI CL ), chloroflucarbon compounds CFCs and halon compounds. Chlorocarcon compounds are used primarily as industrial solvents, ...
40: Nuclear Fission
... nucleus of a heavy element, such as uranium, into fission fragments. Besides heat energy, fission releases neutrons and such radiation as gamma rays. Nuclear fusion is another reaction that produces nuclear energy. Fusion occurs when atoms become fused together through heat. Both fission and fusion create nuclear energy. However, with the technology we have today, the fission reaction is much easier to produce and we can control the amount of energy ... when a neutron strikes a heavy atomic element, such as uranium. The neutron splits the uranium atom. When the atom is split, it releases two more neutrons. These neutrons can then strike two more uranium atoms. The split of each atom will produce two more neutrons. The more atoms that are split the more neutrons produced that will split more atoms. As this process is repeated over, it becomes a self-sustaining chain reaction. This energy producing process is called a nuclear fission ...

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