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1: Atomism: Democritus and Epicurus
Atomism: Democritus and Epicurus In the Atomists, we see pluralism taken as far as it could possibly go. We see Democritus and Epicurus divide all the world, as well as the universe, into two categories; atoms and empty space. Everything else is merely thought to exist. The atoms are eternal, infinite in size and number and they are moving through the empty space. There is no motion without empty space. Both Democritus and Epicurus agreed that motion was impossible in a plenum, but ... theories diverge. In the cause of the motion, we begin to see a variety of opinions. Both Democritus and Epicurus agreed that the “qualitative world of sense perception arises from the motion of qualitatively neutral atoms. They believe that the immense qualitative variety results from the ‘jostling' of atoms...as they collide and bounce apart, and so, constantly form new groupings” (Jones 84). They believe it to be a mechanical ...
2: Atoms
Atoms How many times can one cut a piece of gold in half? A Greek philosopher named Democritus was the first in a long line of scientists and mathematicians to try to answer this very difficult ... for Democritus, his theory was not accepted in his lifetime. John Dalton came up with an atomic theory of matter in 1803. In his theory he stated four theories. 1.)All mater is composed of atoms 2.) Atoms of same elements are the same 3.) Atoms of different elements are different and 4.) Atoms unite in definite whole number ratios when they form compounds. Though his theory has some errors, these theories ...
3: The Orgins of Atomic Theory
... it, developing the first atomic theory. Democritus' theory contained four basic ideas: matter is made up of indivisible particles of the smallest possible size; empty space exists between these particles in which they move; the atoms differ in size and shape but not content; and all change is the result of atoms bumping in to other atoms. Democritus came to the first conclusion because he saw that nothing could be divided past a certain point. An example would be a block of stone. It could be ground into a fine sand, ...
4: Intermolecular Bonding Essay
Intermolecular Bonding Essay Write an essay on intermolecular bonding. Explain how each type of bond arises and the evidence for the existence of each. Comment on their strengths in relation to the types of atoms involved; the covalent bond and relative to each other. Use the concepts of different types and strengths of intermolecular bonds to explain the following: There exists four types of intermolecular bonding, they include ionic, covalent ... is isoelectronic with the nearest noble gas., the substance is held together by electrostatic forces between the ions. The tendency for these ions to be formed by elements is corespondent to the octet rule, when atoms react,, they tend to do so in such a way that they attain an outer shell containing eight electrons. The factors that effect the formation of ions are ionization energy, electron affinity, lattice energy. Figure ... lattice of ions would be insufficient to overcome the energy required to form the ions would be insufficient to overcome the energy required to form the ions in the first place. In order for the atoms to achieve a noble gas configuration they must use another method of bonding by the process of electron sharing. From figure 2, you can see that the example of two hydrogen atoms combing. As ...
5: Atom And Qi
Atom & Qi The atom is the smallest portion of a substance that is not perceivable by human senses. The notion of atoms was conceived by ancient Greeks and was developed over thousands of years of scientific inquiry. The concept of qi as the most basic substance of which the world (everything) is comprised, was understood by the ancient Chinese. Both ¡¥atom¡¦ and ¡¥qi¡¦ are believed to exist by human beings and both are considered to be unseen objects (until we could see atoms recently). However, they lead to different interpretations of natural phenomena: the concept of the atom was developed in relation to ¡¥materiality¡¦, whereas qi is relavant to ¡¥spirituality¡¦. The historical progression towards a belief in atoms promoted the deduction of atoms throughout centuries. Nowadays, the atom is universally believed by people to exist as the result of scientific evidence. In contrast, ¡¥qi¡¦ is not believed to be a scientific phenomena ...
6: Nanotechnology: Immortality Or Total Annihilation?
... race eternal life, or it could cause total annihilation. The idea of nanotech was conceived by a man named K. Eric Drexler (Stix 94), which he defines as "Technology based on the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules to build structures to complex atomic specifications (Drexler, "Engines" 288)." The technology which Drexler speaks of will be undoubtedly small, in fact, nano- structures will only measure 100 nanometers, or a billionth of ... can only be seen with the STM, or Scanning Tunneling Microscope (Dowie 4). Moreover the STM allows the scientists to not only see things at the molecular level, but it can pick up and move atoms as well (Port 128). Unfortunately the one device that is giving nanoscientists something to work with is also one of the many obstacles restricting the development of nanotech. The STM has been regarded as too big to ever produce nanotech structures (Port 128). Other scientists have stated that the manipulation of atoms, which nanotech relies on, ignores atomic reality. Atoms simply don't fit together in ways which nanotech intends to use them (Garfinkel 105). The problems plaguing the progress of nanotech has raised many questions ...
7: Atomic Structure
... BC, but it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that this concept was developed into a scientific theory. Almost as soon as the modern atomic theory was established, it was discovered that atoms were not the basic building blocks that were being sought. Instead, atoms consist of electrons that are bound to a tiny nucleus. The nucleus is made of neutrons and protons. For some time it seemed possible that these objects could be the fundamental building blocks, but in ... it was clear that simplifying ideas were needed. The Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev argued that there was a set of more basic entities of which all molecules are constructed, the chemical elements, which consist of atoms of only one kind. In about 1869 he published his periodic table, which exhibited many regularities and sets of recurring properties among these elements. Even while the existence of atoms was being established, new ...
8: Organic Compounds
... substances were thought to be produced only by living organisms. Later in time organic substances were studied in greater detail. Chemists learned that nearly all organic compounds are made of chains and rings of carbon atoms. Chemists then learned to synthesize some simple organic compounds directly from inorganic substances! This amazing discovery marked the beginning of modern organic chemist. Today we define organic chemistry as the chemistry of carbon compounds. (pg ... Chemistry) The largest group of organic compounds are the hydrocarbons. These compounds are composed only of carbon and hydrogen. Almost all other organic compounds can be considered as derivatives of the hydrocarbons. If the carbon atoms are linked in chains, the compounds are called aliphatic compounds. If the atoms are linked in rings, the compounds are called cyclic compounds. (pg.581, ...ibid...) (Biology Pamphlet) In terms of naming organic compounds the number of carbon-carbon chains are named using the prefixes below: meth- ...
9: Stoicism And Epicureanism
... support their ethical doctrines. Epicurus, the founder of Epicureanism, saw death as a total extinction with no afterlife to ensue, he regarded the universe as infinite and eternal and as consisting only of space and atoms; where the soul or mind is constructed of indestructible parts that can never be destroyed. He sought to free humanity from the fear of death and of the gods, which he considered the main cause ... offered some Roman people something that they could seek in order to escape the fears of the gods and religion in general. Epicurean s physics was atomistic; meaning that the entire universe merely consisted of atoms and the space or void in which the atoms floated, collided, and whirled about. Lucretius wrote that not all bodily matter is tightly packed /by nature s law, for there s a void in things. By void I mean vacant and empty space, / ...
10: Solar Cells
... charge. Every atom has the same number of electrons as there are protons, so, on the whole, it is electrically neutral. The electrons have discrete kinetic energy levels, which increase with the orbital radius. When atoms bond together to form a solid, the electron energy levels merge into bands. In electrical conductors, these bands are continuous but in insulators and semiconductors there is an "energy gap", in which no electron orbits can exist, between the inner valence band and outer conduction band [Book 1]. Valence electrons help to bind together the atoms in a solid by orbiting 2 adjacent nucleii, while conduction electrons, being less closely bound to the nucleii, are free to move in response to an applied voltage or electric field. The fewer conduction electrons ... semiconductors decreases as the temperature is raised or the material illuminated. The excitation of valence electrons to the conduction band is best accomplished when the semiconductor is in the crystalline state, i.e. when the atoms are arranged in a precise geometrical formation or "lattice". At room temperature and low illumination, pure or so-called "intrinsic" semiconductors have a high resistivity. But the resistivity can be greatly reduced by "doping", ...

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