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61: A Look At Anemia Related To Nutritional Issues
... problem that is present in our lives and there is a lot of action we can take to prevent and treat this disease. The most common forms of nutritional anemia are iron-deficiency anemia, folic-acid deficiency anemia, and Pernicious anemia, which is commonly known as anemia caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE There is an abundant amount of information available on the various types of nutritional ... iron requirements, such as children and pregnant or menstruating women. It is also crucial for those whose diets are low in iron, including strict vegetarians, people on weight-reduction diets, and infants" (Mayo, 957). FOLIC-ACID DEFICIENCY ANEMIA "Folic acid, which is also known as folate, is a member of the vitamin B group. Lack of it causes an anemia characterized by red blood cells that are large but few in number. Deficiency can ...
62: Evolution From A Molecular Perspective
... What if the information stored in our genes was available to the public? Would insurance companies and employers base their selections on these traits? Also, with the total knowledge of every sequence of every amino acid chain in a person's genome, couldn't a laboratory perceivably reconstruct an exact copy of, or clone, that person? These are all issues that will have to be dealt with in the near future ... colors as it does so. Hence, hemoglobin has long been termed the pigment of our blood. Hemoglobin was one of the first proteins to be purified to the point where its molecular weight and amino acid composition could be accurately measured. This finding was very important in that it eventually lead to the understanding that a protein is a definite compound and not a colloidal mixture of polymers. Each molecule was built from exactly the same amino acid subunits connected in the same order alonga chain, and had exactly the same weight. Most organisms have their own unique, individual chain of proteins to make up their hemoglobin, but all organisms share certain ...
63: Hopeful Encounter
... setting. Far to the east, threatening black clouds arose from the fumes of pollution from the several smoke stacks towering over the city. The streets were pock marked and dented with the recent shower of acid rain. Hot boiling steam from the sewers made the temperature of day much hotter than it really was. Just outside the borders of the city is a lake covered with muck and crude oil spills. Death ... an atmosphere of relaxation. At least the problems of the world can be temporarily forgotten in here, drowned out in a pint of beer. A low slanted ceiling hung over head. Years of exposure to acid rain caused the wood to decay. Wood fillings was occasionally used to patch up the holes. Although the variety of alchoholic beverages served here were not abundent, the ones they did have were quite ...
64: The Ecology of a Rain Forest
The Ecology of a Rain Forest In 1980, the estimated amount of rain forests in the world was 40,000 square miles. This number decreases each year by roughly 1,000 square miles due to construction and the resources being used for profit. It is too bad, because the rain forest is one of the most beautiful places on earth. It is the most diverse, containing the most species of living things, much more than anywhere else, and most have yet to be identified. ...
65: Cellular Metabolism And Fermentation
... phosphate (GAP, also known as phosphoglyceraldehyde, PGAL) is the more readily used of the two. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be converted into GAP by the enzyme Isomerase. The end of the glycolysis process yields two pyruvic acid (3-C) molecules, and a net gain of 2 ATP and two NADH per glucose. Anaerobic Pathways Under anaerobic conditions, the absence of oxygen, pyruvic acid can be routed by the organism into one of three pathways: lactic acid fermentation, alcohol fermentation, or cellular (anaerobic) respiration. Humans cannot ferment alcohol in their own bodies, we lack the genetic information to do so. These biochemical pathways, with their myriad reactions catalyzed by reaction-specific ...
66: Acid Base Extraction
Acid Base Extraction The purpose of this laboratory assignment was two-fold, first, we were to demonstrate the extraction of acids and bases, finally, determining what unknowns were present. Second, we were to extract caffeine from tea. These two assignment will be documented in two separate entities. Introduction: Acid/base extraction involves carrying out simple acid/base reactions in order to separate strong organic acids, weak organic acids neutral organic compounds and basic organic substances. The procedure for this laboratory assignment are on the following pages. 3) Separation of Carboxylic ...
67: Water Pollution: Is it as big of a problem as we think?
... a nuclear power plant) can cause pollution. This happens if their elevation reduces dissolved-oxygen levels, and accelerates eustrophication, which in turn affects the ecological processes and blocks the migration path of fishes. Acidification: Acidification (acid rain etc.) Is caused by sulfur and nitrogen oxide in the rain, which is caused by automobiles and large industries. Temperature Changes: The temperature of a body of water is changed by waste heat discharges, like that of a nuclear power plant. It affects ecological processes ...
68: Monosaccharides
... five or six. The most important pentoses include xylose, found combined as xylan in woody materials; arabinose from coniferous trees; ribose, a component of ribonucleic acids and several vitamins; and deoxyribose, a component of deoxyribonucleic acid. Among the most important aldohexoses are glucose, mannose, and galactose; fructose is a ketohexose. Several derivatives of monosaccharides are important. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is derived from glucose. Important sugar alcohols (alditols), formed by the reduction of (i.e., addition of hydrogen to) a monosaccharide, include sorbitol (glucitol) from glucose and mannitol from mannose; both are used ... D-galactose among the hexoses, and D-xylose and L-arabinose among the pentoses. In a special sense, D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose are ubiquitous because they form the carbohydrate component of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), respectively; these sugars are present in all cells as components of nucleic acids. Sources of some of the naturally occurring monosaccharides are listed in Table 2.D-xylose, found ...
69: Phosphates
Phosphates Phosphates may be created by substituting some or all of the hydrogen of a phosphoric acid by metals. Depending on the number of hydrogen atoms that are replaced, the resulting compound is described as a primary, secondary or tertiary phosphate. Primary and secondary phosphates contain hydrogen and are acid salts. Secondary and tertiary phosphates, with the exception of those of sodium, potassium and ammonium are insoluble in water. Tertiary sodium phosphate is valuable as a detergent and water softener. The primary phosphates tend to ... in some of Canada's major waterways, where dead and decaying algae deprive the deeper waters of their oxygen. Researches at Lancaster University have studied lakes whose plant and animal life has been killed by acid rain. The excess acid in the lakes can be neutralized easily by adding lime, but this makes the waters rich in calcium. Life will gradually return to the lake but, as these lakes should ...
70: Fossil Fuels And Alternative Energy Sources
... to the Earth (Information 89). The same sulfur and nitrous oxides that cause the smog at ground level form nitric and sulfuric acids in the atmosphere (Burning www 1). Upon arrival to Earth this acidic rain damages everything that is falls on. The evidence of acid rain is extremely visible in the damaged forests, polluted soil, and the contaminated plants and animals that are spread around the globe. This acid rain is so damaging it is also blamed for destroying the ...

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